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The Legal Priorities Project has published a new report (link, PDF, SSRN) surveying models, different examples, and proposals for international institutions for AI governance.

This literature review examines a range of institutional models that have been proposed over the year for the international governance of AI. The review specifically focuses on proposals that would involve the creation of new international institutions for AI. As such, it focuses on seven models for international AI institutions with distinct functions. These models are:

  1. Scientific consensus building
  2. Political consensus-building and norm-setting
  3. Coordination of policy and regulation
  4. Enforcement of standards or restrictions
  5. Stabilization and emergency response
  6. International joint research
  7. Distribution of benefits and access

Part I consists of the literature review. For each model, we provide (i) a description of each model’s functions and types; (ii) the most common examples of each model; (iii) some under-explored examples that are not (often) mentioned in the AI governance literature but that show promise; (iv) a review of proposals for the application of that model to the international regulation of AI; and (v) critiques of the model both generally and in its potential application to AI.

Part II briefly discusses some considerations for further research concerning the design of international institutions for AI, including the effectiveness of each model at accomplishing its aims; treaty-based regulatory frameworks; other institutional models not covered in this review; the compatibility of institutional functions; and institutional options to host a new international AI governance body.

Overall, the review covers seven institutional models, as well as more than thirty-three commonly invoked examples of those models, twenty-two additional examples, and forty-seven proposals of new AI institutions based on those models. Table 1 summarizes these findings.

Table 1: Overview of institutional models, examples, and proposed institutions surveyed



Common examples

Under- explored examples

Proposed AI institutions

Scientific consensus- building
  • IPCC
  • SAP
  • CEP
  • WMO
  • IPAI
  • Commission on Frontier AI
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Information Technology
Political consensus- building and norm-setting
  • COPs (e.g. UNFCCC COP)
  • OECD
  • G20
  • G7
  • ISO
  • IEC
  • ITU
  • Various soft law instruments
  • Lysøen Declaration
  • Codex Alimentarius Commission
  • IAIO
  • Emerging Technology Coalition
  • IAAI
  • Data Governance Structure
  • Data Stewardship Organization
  • International Academy for AI Law and Regulation
Coord. of policy and regulation
  • WTO
  • ICAO
  • IMO
  • IAEA
  • FATF
  • UNEP
  • ILO
  • EMEP
  • World Bank
  • IMF
  • WSIS
  • Advanced AI Governance Organisation
  • IAIO
  • EU AI Agency
  • GAIA
  • Generative AI global governance body
  • Coordinator and Catalyser of International AI Law
Enforcement of standards or restrictions
  • IAEA (Department of Safeguards)
  • Nuclear Suppliers Group
  • Wassenaar Arrangement
  • Missile Technology Control Regime
  • Open Skies Consultative Commission
  • Atomic Development Authority
  • OPCW
  • BWC Implementation Unit
  • IMO 
  • CITES Secretariat
  • UN AI control agency
  • Global watchdog agency
  • International Enforcement Agency
  • Emerging Technologies Treaty
  • IAIA (multiple)
  • UN Framework Convention on AI (UNFCAI) & Protocol on AI, supported by Intergovernmental Panel on AI, AI GLobal Authority, and supervisory body
  • Advanced AI Governance Organization
  • AIEA for Superintelligence
  • NPT+
  • Multilateral AI governance initiative
  • International AI Safety Agency
  • Advanced AI chips registry
  • Code of conduct for state behavior
  • AI CBMs
  • Open Skies for AI
  • Bilateral US-China regime
Stabilization and emergency response
  • FSB
  • WHO
  • IAEA
  • Global Foresight Observatory
  • Geotechnology Stability Board
Intern. joint research
  • CERN
  • ITER
  • ISS
  • Human Genome Project
  • Atomic Development Authority (proposed)
  • James Webb Telescope
  • LIGO
  • AI Safety Project
  • Clearinghouse for research into AI
  • Benevolent AGI Treaty
  • Multilateral Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (MAIRI)
  • Neutral hub for AI research
  • UN AI Research Organization (UNAIRO)
  • CERN for AI
  • International supercomputing research facility
  • Joint international AI project 
  • Multilateral AGI Consortium
  • European Artificial Intelligence megaproject
Distribution of benefits and access
  • Gavi
  • Vaccine Alliance
  • Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
  • IAEA (nuclear fuel bank)
  • ABS Clearing- House
  • UN Climate Technology Centre and Network
  • International Digital Democracy Initiative
  • Frontier AI Collaborative
  • Institution analogous to the IAEA
  • Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing Model






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